Our data suggest that topoisomerase II is a component of the initiation competent RNA polymerase I complex and interacts directly with RNA polymerase I associated transcription factor RRN3, which targets the polymerase to promoter bound SL1 in pre initiation complex formation. In cells, activation of rDNA transcription is reduced by inhibition or depletion of topoisomerase II, and this is accompanied by reduced transient double strand DNA cleavage in the rDNA promoter region and reduced pre initiation complex formation. We propose that topoisomerase II functions in RNA polymerase I transcription to produce topological changes at the rDNA promoter that facilitate efficient de novo pre initiation complex formation..
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) shows great potential for rapid data entry, but has limited success when applied to the Arabic language. Normal OCR problems are compounded by the right to left nature of Arabic and because the script is largely connected. This research investigates current approaches to the Arabic character recognition problem and innovates a new approach.The main work involves a Haar Cascade Classifier (HCC) approach modified for the first time for Arabic character recognition.
This controversy will not end with the drug’s withdrawal. Merck’s likely litigation bill is put at between $10bn and $15bn. The company has seen its revenues and its capitalization slashed. Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days.
We present a non destructive analytical calibration tool to allow quantitative assessment of individual calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HAP) from mixtures including brushite. Many experimental approaches are used to evaluate the mineralising capabilities of biomolecules including peptides. However, it is difficult to quantitatively compare the efficacy of peptides in the promotion of mineralisation when inseparable mixtures of different minerals are produced.
One of it more recognizable uses, Ginger Ale. Ginger Ale is one of the oldest and well known soft drinks. Most of us will have memories of Ginger Ale being given to us as children, for an upset stomach. Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. The problem of determining contact angles and surface energy of powders, such as soil particles, remains unsolved. So far, several theories and approaches have been proposed, but formulation of surface and interfacial free energy, as regards its components, is still a very debatable issue.